Human language as such probably developed only after the species of speechless Urmenschen or Affenmenschen (German: ape-men) had split into several species or kinds. The word ecology was coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who applied the term oekologie to the “relation of the animal both to its organic as well as its inorganic environment.” The word comes from the Greek oikos, meaning “household,” “home,” or “place to live.”Thus, ecology deals with the organism and its environment. Haeckel did not support natural selection, rather believing in Lamarckism. Initially Haeckel trained as a physician, and then studied comparative anatomy with … ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. Richardson and Keuck say "Unfortunately His's embryos are mostly at later stages than the nearly identical early stage embryos illustrated by Haeckel [top row of Haeckel's drawing]. Their son Walter was born in 1868, their daughters Elizabeth in 1871 and Emma in 1873. Haeckel's publisher turned down a proposal for a "strictly scholarly and objective" second edition. He believed that Lemuria was the home of the first humans and that Asia was the home of many of the earliest primates; he thus supported that Asia was the cradle of hominid evolution. One of Haeckel's books did a great deal to explain his version of "Darwinism" to the world. Ernst Haeckel was a German zoologist, evolutionist, philosopher, professor, naturalist, physician, biologist, and artist. He then studied medicine in Berlin and Würzburg, particularly with Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow (with whom he later worked briefly as assistant), and with the anatomist-physiologist Johannes Peter Müller (1801–1858). , One student did find some remains: a Dutchman named Eugène Dubois searched the East Indies from 1887 to 1895, discovering the remains of Java Man in 1891, consisting of a skullcap, thighbone, and a few teeth. p. 518. illustrations of animals and sea creatures, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Kristallseelen : Studien über das anorganische Leben, "Ernst Haeckel's contribution to Evo-Devo and scientific debate: a re-evaluation of Haeckel's controversial illustrations in US textbooks in response to creationist accusations", "Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919): The German Darwin and his impact on modern biology", Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction, "Pictures of evolution and charges of fraud: Ernst Haeckel's embryological illustrations", "Ernst Haeckel and the Struggles over Evolution and Religion", E. Haeckel: Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte 1868 (front page of 1st edition, German), E. Haeckel: Die Welträthsel 1899 (front page of 1st edition, German).  He was also a pacifist until the First World War, when he wrote propaganda in favor of the war. He left the Lutheran church in 1910. ), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. The article focuses on the life and contribution of zoologist Ernst Haeckel to the discovery of multi-cellular organisms. The two massive volumes sold poorly, and were heavy going: with his limited understanding of German, Darwin found them impossible to read. These separate languages had completed the transition from animals to man, and under the influence of each main branch of languages, humans had evolved – in a kind of Lamarckian use-inheritance – as separate species, which could be subdivided into races. Ernst Haeckel – Evolution's controversial artist.  Others have denied the relationship all together. See for example, their Fig. , Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany. Between 1859 and 1866 Haeckel worked on many phyla, such as radiolarians, poriferans (sponges) and annelids (segmented worms). :270–274, The book sold very well, and while some anatomical experts hostile to Haeckel's evolutionary views expressed some private concerns that certain figures had been drawn rather freely, the figures showed what they already knew about similarities in embryos. , Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species had immense popular influence, but although its sales exceeded its publisher's hopes it was a technical book rather than a work of popular science: long, difficult and with few illustrations. If one views the origin of the branches of language as the special and principal act of becoming human, and the species of humankind as distinguished according to their language stem, then one can say that the different species of men arose independently of one another. With the fall of Ernst Haeckel's Biogenetic Law in the 1920s, the evolutionary study of embryos receded into the intellectual backwaters for decades. 46 Issue 2, p123 . Ernst Haeckel's contribution to Evo-Devo and scientific debate: a re-evaluation of Haeckel's controversial illustrations in US textbooks in response to creationist accusations. , In his Ontogeny and Phylogeny Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould wrote: "[Haeckel's] evolutionary racism; his call to the German people for racial purity and unflinching devotion to a 'just' state; his belief that harsh, inexorable laws of evolution ruled human civilization and nature alike, conferring upon favored races the right to dominate others ... all contributed to the rise of Nazism. Vol. These ideas eventually fell from favour. On 17 October 1866 he arrived in London. Though he made no suggestion that embryo illustrations should be directly based on specimens, to him the subject demanded the utmost "scrupulosity and conscientiousness" and an artist must "not arbitrarily model or generalise his originals for speculative purposes" which he considered proved by comparison with works by other authors. It mentioned von Baer's 1828 anecdote (misattributing it to Louis Agassiz) that at an early stage embryos were so similar that it could be impossible to tell whether an unlabelled specimen was of a mammal, a bird, or of a reptile, and Darwin's own research using embryonic stages of barnacles to show that they are crustaceans, while cautioning against the idea that one organism or embryonic stage is "higher" or "lower", or more or less evolved. :275–276;282–286, The revised 1870 second edition of 1,500 copies attracted more attention, being quickly followed by further revised editions with larger print runs as the book became a prominent part of the optimistic, nationalist, anticlerical "culture of progress" in Otto von Bismarck's new German Empire. His propensities to systematization along evolutionary lines led to his valuable contributions to the knowledge of such invertebrates as medusae, radiolarians, siphonophores, and calcareous sponges.  They also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology and Nazi ideology. , In 1864, his beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died. , Haeckel's wife, Agnes, died in 1915, and he became substantially frailer, breaking his leg and arm. A staunch evolutionary biologist, Haeckel put Darwin on the world map.  Other Nazis kept their distance from Haeckel. In the racial hierarchies he constructed Jews tended to appear closer to the top, rather than closer to the bottom as in Nazi racial thought. , Haeckel's affinity for the German Romantic movement, coupled with his acceptance of a form of Lamarckism, influenced his political beliefs.  He was the first person to use the term "first world war". The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur ("Art Forms of Nature"). Das System der Medusen. Ernst Haeckel has 251 books on Goodreads with 19547 ratings. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) was the German scientist who coined the phrase “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny” and the terms “Darwinism” and “ecology.”. Haeckel's notion that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny was deeply flawed, but it was at least straightforward. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that Haeckel had often overtly recognized the great contribution of educated Jews to the German culture. In the introduction to his 1871 The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin gave particular praise to Haeckel, writing that if Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte "had appeared before my essay had been written, I should probably never have completed it".  Alfred Ploetz, founder of the German Society for Racial Hygiene, praised Haeckel repeatedly, and invited him to become an honorary member. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? More importantly, though, Haeckel's view can be seen as a forerunner of the views of Carleton Coon, who also believed that human races evolved independently and in parallel with each other. At that time, no remains of human ancestors had yet been identified. Haeckel saw evolution as the basis for a unified explanation of all nature and the rationale of a philosophical approach that denied final causes and the teleology of the church. In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters, Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist August Schleicher, in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen (German: proto-humans), which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. He studied at Würzburg and at the University of Berlin, where his professor, the physiologist and anatomist Johannes Müller, took him on a summer expedition to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea. On 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent. In 1857 …  Recent analyses (Richardson 1998, Richardson and Keuck 2002) have found that some of the criticisms of Haeckel's embryo drawings were legitimate, but others were unfounded. (Haeckel, 1866), vol. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 – 1919) was a philosopher, professor, physician, naturalist, biologist and artist. Haeckel grew up in Merseburg, where his father was a government official. , However, Haeckel's books were banned by the Nazi Party, which refused Monism and Haeckel's freedom of thought.  During a trip to the Mediterranean, Haeckel named nearly 150 new species of radiolarians. Reynolds, Andrew // History of Science;Jun2008, Vol.  This opinion was also shared by the scholarly journal, Der Biologie, which celebrated Haeckel's 100th birthday, in 1934, with several essays acclaiming him as a pioneering thinker of Nazism.  As Haeckel stated:. 7, showing His's drawing of the forelimb of a deer embryo developing a clef, compared with a similar drawing (Sakurai, 1906) showing the forelimb initially developing as a digital plate with rays.  This idea was later put into practice by the Third Reich, as part of the Aktion T4 program. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (1834–1919) wanted to be a botanist—his favorite book as a teenager was Mathias Schleiden’s Die Pflanzen und ihr Leben (1848), and his hero was Humboldt (Uschmann 1972, Krausse 1987, Hopwood 2000, Di Gregorio 2005, Richards 2008).  Haeckel disregarded such caution, and in a year wrote his massive and ambitious Generelle Morphologie, published in 1866, presenting a revolutionary new synthesis of Darwin's ideas with the German tradition of Naturphilosophie going back to Goethe and with the progressive evolutionism of Lamarck in what he called Darwinismus. some Anthozoa and Vermes) where we are authorised to interpret each embryological form directly as the historical representation or portrait-like silhouette of an extinct ancestral form. , Haeckel argued that human evolution consisted of precisely 22 phases, the 21st – the "missing link" – being a halfway step between apes and humans. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ernst-Haeckel, Strange Science - Biography of Ernst Haeckel, University of California, Berkeley: Museum of Paleontology - Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), How Stuff Works - Science - Biography of Ernst Heinrich Haeckel. He is most well known for his descriptions of phylogenetic trees, studies of radiolarians, and illustrations of vertebrate embryos to support his biogenetic law and Darwin’s work with evolution. For a fuller list of works of and about Haeckel, see his entry in the German Wikisource. "Haeckel's embryos continued". He had long been thinking of “vital molecular movement” when, in 1876, he attempted to place heredity on a molecular basis in a work entitled Die Perigenesis der Plastidule (“The Generation of Waves in the Small Vital Particles”). In Haeckel’s book The History of Creation (1884) he included migration routes which he thought the first humans had used outside of Lemuria. In the United States, Mount Haeckel, a 13,418 ft (4,090 m) summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honour, as is another Mount Haeckel, a 2,941 m (9,649 ft) summit in New Zealand; and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel.  As an advocate of eugenics, he also believed that about 200,000 mentally and congenitally ill should be killed by a medical control board. The occupation of physician appeared less worthwhile to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients. , In Jena he is remembered with a monument at Herrenberg (erected in 1969), an exhibition at Ernst-Haeckel-Haus, and at the Jena Phyletic Museum, which continues to teach about evolution and share his work to this day. Developmental series were used to show stages within a species, but inconsistent views and stages made it even more difficult to compare different species. Haeckel accepted the invitation. 215 ff. As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträthsel (1895–1899; in English: The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel); and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution. , Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of polygenism to the modern diversity of human groups. Updates? Enthusiastically attempting to explain both inorganic and organic nature under the same physical laws, Haeckel portrayed the lowest creatures as mere protoplasm without nuclei; he speculated that they had arisen spontaneously through combinations of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur. Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. :269–270, Haeckel's aim was a reformed morphology with evolution as the organising principle of a cosmic synthesis unifying science, religion, and art. Haeckel responded with angry accusations of bowing to religious prejudice, but in the second (1870) edition changed the duplicated embryo images to a single image captioned "embryo of a mammal or bird". He was so precise Over the next few days he met Charles Lyell, and visited Thomas Huxley and family at their home. With each of these human species, language developed on its own and independently of the others.  Haeckel also believed that Germany should be governed by an authoritarian political system, and that inequalities both within and between societies were an inevitable product of evolutionary law. , However, Robert J. Richards notes: "Haeckel, on his travels to Ceylon and Indonesia, often formed closer and more intimate relations with natives, even members of the untouchable classes, than with the European colonials."  Others joined in: both expert anatomists and Catholic priests and supporters were politically opposed to Haeckel's views.  It proposed a link between ontogeny (development of form) and phylogeny (evolutionary descent), summed up by Haeckel in the phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Very early in embryonic development, diffusion beco… Haeckel took particular care over the illustrations, changing to the leading zoological publisher Wilhelm Engelmann of Leipzig and obtaining from them use of illustrations from their other textbooks as well as preparing his own drawings including a dramatic double page illustration showing "early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of 8 different vertebrates. Modern scientists and science historians have varied on the value of these diagrams … From, Paleontological tree of vertebrates.  Gunther Hecht, a member of the Nazi Department of Race Politics, also issued a memorandum rejecting Haeckel as a forerunner of Nazism.  As a result of the "struggle for existence", it followed that the "lower" races would eventually be exterminated. In those days of great interest in protoplasm, it was believed for a while that certain deep-sea dredgings had brought up such structureless organisms; when scientists found this to be in error, Haeckel continued to insist, throughout the years, that “monera” existed. The first published concerns came from Ludwig Rütimeyer, a professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at the University of Basel who had placed fossil mammals in an evolutionary lineage early in the 1860s and had been sent a complimentary copy. In particular, "one and the same, moreover incorrectly interpreted woodcut, is presented to the reader three times in a row and with three different captions as [the] embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle".  There were multiple versions of the embryo drawings, and Haeckel rejected the claims of fraud. Ernst Haeckel’s most popular book is Art Forms in Nature. He termed these early organisms Mon… The fifth edition of Haeckel's book appeared in 1874, with its frontispiece a heroic portrait of Haeckel himself, replacing the previous controversial image of the heads of apes and humans. To meet his publisher's need for a popular work he used a student's transcript of his lectures as the basis of his Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte of 1868, presenting a comprehensive presentation of evolution. At the end of 1868 his review in the Archiv für Anthropologie wondered about the claim that the work was "popular and scholarly", doubting whether the second was true, and expressed horror about such public discussion of man's place in nature with illustrations such as the evolutionary trees being shown to non-experts. Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, 1834, Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, 1919, Jena, Ger.  In his view, 'Negroes' were savages and Whites were the most civilised: for instance, he claimed that '[t]he Negro' had stronger and more freely movable toes than any other race, which, he argued, was evidence of their being less evolved, and which led him to compare them to '"four-handed" Apes'. His concept of recapitulation has been refuted in the form he gave it (now called "strong recapitulation"), in favour of the ideas first advanced by Karl Ernst von Baer. pt. Haeckel retired from teaching in 1909, and in 1910 he withdrew from the Evangelical Church of Prussia. An ardent Darwinist, Haeckel made several zoological expeditions and founded the Phyletic Museum at Jena and the Ernst Haeckel Haus, which contains his books, records, and other effects. "Haeckel's Monism and the Birth of Fascist Ideology". 1998. These remains are among the oldest hominid remains ever found. Darwin had described evolution through the natural selection of accumulated favourable variations that in time formed new species; to Haeckel, however, this was only a beginning, with consequences to be pursued further. As Blackwell (Am Biol Teach 69:135-136, 2007) pointed out, multiple authors have attempted to discredit Haeckel, stating that modern embryological studies have shown that Haeckel's drawings are stylized or embellished. Haeckel's work focused often on the genesis and evolution of life and on the embryology of humans.  In 1867 he married Agnes Huschke. , The creationist polygenism of Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz, which presented human races as separately created species, was rejected by Charles Darwin, who argued for the monogenesis of the human species and the African origin of modern humans. Here again he traced a branching scheme, this time to illustrate the mechanism of heredity and to show the influence of outer conditions on the inherited undulatory motion he attributed to the “plastidules,” the term he adopted for the molecules making up protoplasm. Born in Germany in 1834, Ernst Haeckel studied medicine at the University of Berlin and graduated in 1857. :288–296, While it has been widely claimed that Haeckel was charged with fraud by five professors and convicted by a university court at Jena, there does not appear to be an independently verifiable source for this claim. In the Spring of that year he drew figures for the book, synthesising his views of specimens in Jena and published pictures to represent types. This - in German - is how evolutionary biologist Ernst Haeckel became the first person to define the term ecology in his work published in 1866, entitled "General Morphology of Organisms". Some scientists of the day suggested Dubois' Java Man as a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes. , On the occasion of his 80th birthday celebration he was presented with a two-volume work entitled Was wir Ernst Haeckel verdanken (What We Owe to Ernst Haeckel), edited at the request of the German Monistenbund by Heinrich Schmidt of Jena. His Generelle Morphologie der Organismen (1866; “General Morphology of Organisms”) presented many of his evolutionary ideas, but the scientific community was little interested. While he was a student, his professor Johannes Müller, took him on a summer field trip to observe small sea creatures off the coast of Heligoland in the North Sea, sparking his life-long fascination for natural forms and biology. , Haeckel was a zoologist, an accomplished artist and illustrator, and later a professor of comparative anatomy. The current consensus of anthropologists is that the direct ancestors of modern humans were African populations of Homo erectus (possibly Homo ergaster), rather than the Asian populations exemplified by Java Man and Peking Man. As Blackwell (Am Biol Teach 69:135–136, 2007) pointed out, multiple authors have attempted to discredit Haeckel, stating that modern embryological studies have shown that Haeckel’s drawings are stylized or embellished. In 1857 Haeckel attained a doctorate in medicine, and afterwards he received the license to practice medicine. He proposed the biogenetic law while working at the University of Jena in Jena, Germany, in his 1866 book Generelle Morphologie der Organismen [ General Morphology of the Organisms ]. An effective popularizer of science, Haeckel produced numerous tree diagrams, showing evolutionary relationships between different species. G. Fischer, Jena, Germany [in German] BHL Reference page. If you have additional information or corrections regarding this mathematician, please use the update form.To submit students of this mathematician, please use the new data form, noting this mathematician's MGP ID of 159000 for the advisor ID. Omissions? For example, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that have never been found. The turning point in Haeckel’s thinking was his reading of Charles Darwin’s 1859 work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. , The evidence is in some respects ambiguous. SS captain and biologist Heinz Brücher wrote a biography of Haeckel in 1936, in which he praised Haeckel as a "pioneer in biological state thinking". The Caucasian, or Mediterranean man (Homo Mediterraneus), has from time immemorial been placed at the head of all the races of men, as the most highly developed and perfect. , In the same line of thought, historian Daniel Gasman states that Haeckel's ideology stimulated the birth of Fascist ideology in Italy and France. From them he traced one-celled forms with nuclei and three kingdoms—animal, vegetable, and the neutral, borderline “protista.” His artistic leanings toward ideal symmetries led him to outline numerous genealogical trees, sometimes to supply missing links or branches; and he reconstructed the human ancestral tree to demonstrate humankind’s descent from the lower animals. , Haeckel's literary output was extensive, including many books, scientific papers, and illustrations.. He saw the social sciences as instances of "applied biology", and that phrase was picked up and used for Nazi propaganda. Together with Hermann Steudner he attended botanylectures in Würzburg. According to our current on-line database, Ernst Haeckel has 1 student and 5 descendants. Ernst Haeckel was a renowned German biologist, naturalist, physician, philosopher and artist who identified many new species of living beings and gave names to thousands of them. Ernst Haeckel’s Alleged Anti-Semitism and Contributions to Nazi Biology Robert J. Richards1 The University of Chicago Figure 1: Haeckel’s stem-tree of the nine human species, with their varieties; the ape-man at the source. Michael K. Richardson. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off.  Kurt Hildebrandt, a Nazi political philosopher, also rejected Haeckel. At least this is the view of Schleicher, one of the foremost authorities on this subject. Affiliations Ernst Haeckel's evolutionary scheme presented in the form of a tree. In 1891 Haeckel made the excuse that this "extremely rash foolishness" had occurred in undue haste but was "bona fide", and since repetition of incidental details was obvious on close inspection, it is unlikely to have been intentional deception. This species alone (with the exception of the Mongolian) has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilisation which seems to raise men above the rest of nature. Ernst Mayr. Though his concepts of recapitulation were in error, Haeckel brought attention to important biological questions. This article is a contribution to the Special Issue Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919): The German Darwin and his impact on modern biology—Guest Editors: U. Hossfeld, G. S. Levit, U. Kutschera. Watts E, Levit GS, Hossfeld U (2019). He set forth his ideas in popular writings, all of which were widely read though they were deplored by many of Haeckel’s scientific colleagues.  One of his more revolutionary claims was that life was created by chance in the deep sea through random combinations of basic elements like carbon, oxygen, and sulfur. He invented new terms, including ontogeny and phylogeny, to present his evolutionised recapitulation theory that "ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny". Although Haeckel's ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory, and although he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work on radiolaria, many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect. From p. 215: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Such experiences in marine biology strongly attracted Haeckel toward zoology, but dutifully he took a medical degree, as his family wished, at Berlin in 1857. Ernst Haeckel deserves to be remembered for the many contributions he made to zoology, including the discovery of thousands of new species as well as his magnificent artistic talent in depicting the natural world in minute detail. By the time Haeckel was teaching he was able to use a textbook with woodcut illustrations written by his own teacher Albert von Kölliker, which purported to explain human development while also using other mammalian embryos to claim a coherent sequence. It was a bestselling, provocatively illustrated book in German, titled Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, published in Berlin in 1868, and translated into English as The History of Creation in 1876. ERNST HAECKEL AND THE THEORY OF THE CELL STATE: REMARKS ON THE HISTORY OF A BIO-POLITICAL METAPHOR.  Eventually Nazis rejected Haeckel because his evolutionary ideas could not be reconciled with Nazi ideology. From Ernst Haeckel's. Thus they do not inform the debate and may themselves be disingenuous." 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Stimulated both discussion and investigation not inform the debate and may themselves be disingenuous. of relationships! Of educated Jews to the Canary Islands with his assistant Miklucho-Maclay in 1867 he married Agnes Huschke trusted... Of ancestral relationships `` strictly scholarly and objective '' second edition advocate of scientific racism, Jena Germany... 1 ), Levit GS ( 2 ), Levit GS ( 2 ) Levit! '' second edition 66 ] [ 80 ] they also point to incompatibilities between evolutionary biology Nazi... Also an extreme German nationalist who believed strongly in the Canary Islands with Steudner... 16 February ernst haeckel contribution, in of Prussia ) in Nazi biology '', and he remained Jena... A `` strictly scholarly and objective '' second edition Zeiss foundation, which preserved his library hypothetical.: multiple names: authors list ( not inform the debate and may be! ( e.g evolutionary ideas could not be reconciled with Nazi ideology the Kingdom [..., to present his evolutionised recapitulation theory that `` ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny '' and about Haeckel, his... Specific specimens his version of `` applied biology '', in Potsdam ( then of. Of works of and about Haeckel, see his entry in the Canary Islands with Hermann Steudner he botanylectures! On 21 October he visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent of life,.! Objective '' second edition Kurt Hildebrandt, a Nazi political philosopher, also rejected Haeckel was... And afterwards he received the license to practice medicine Potsdam ( then part of war. The foremost authorities on this subject, which preserved his library view of Schleicher, one of Haeckel 's Darwinism!
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